Conceptualized by - Ankit Goyal


Technical Notes -
  1. Power delivery and storage systems configured to be able to provide a Power to Weight ratio of ~7lb/hp (235W/Kg), acceleration of 0-60mph in under 3 seconds, quarter mile in under 11 seconds and lap times similar to Hypercars while offering easy handling to a wide range of drivers (from novice to the experienced).
  2. Integration of streamlined old technologies with new inexpensive technologies, to generate an "economic equilibrium" between performance & efficiency.


Name - 
  • Code Name - Renault Zoe E-Sport Concept
  • Type - 2 Seater Electric SubCompact Track Car
Performance -
  • Horsepower - 460hp (343kW)
  • Torque - 640Nm (472lb.ft)
  • Top Speed - 210+kmph (130+mph) in <10 seconds (electronically limited)
  • Acceleration - 0-100kmph (0-62mph) in 3.2 seconds

Specifications -
  • Motor - high-capacity permanent magnet, axle mounted, one on each axle
  • Powertrain - 4 wheel drive (single speed, fixed gear)



Body -

  • Aerodynamics - large air dam and splitter at the front, a flat floor/undercarriage, large rear diffuser. gaping tracts in rear doors and a large rear spoiler 
  • Structure - full carbon Fiber body, track-spec intertwined chassis tubular steel roll cage ( by TORK Engineering), kevlar panels.
  • Suspension -  Double Wishbone (very stiff) with four-way adjustable dampers (by Ohlins)
  • Wheels - centrally-locking diamond cut 20inch aluminium alloy rims with racing brakes and  245/35 R20 tires
  • Interior - slick race-spec digital dash, FIA Recaro bucket seats with harnesses, rectangular steering wheel, square dashboard display (to adjust powertrain settings and control energy consumption). de-cluttered concept interior design with lashings of Alcantara and angular switches and vents
  • Total Car Weight - 1403kg (3086 lbs)



Battery - 

  • Battery Pack - 40kWh Lithium Ion, occupying ~0.25 cubic meters of space.
  • Battery Weight - 450kg (1000lbs)
Timeline -
  • Release Year - 2017
  • Production Year - 2016
  • Availability Year - None




Notes -
  1. It takes only a few tenths of a second for the ZOE e-sport concept's motors to reach 4,300rpm.
  2. Its doors are opened by a simple tap on the 'open' zone incorporating tactile sensors.
  3. The dash panel features three zones that permit management of the gearbox, driving mode (four options available) and brake distribution.
  4. An air-and-water cooling system with a front-mounted radiator is used to make sure that the battery and control systems operate at the ideal temperature.
  5. The electronic settings offer four driving modes that adapt, depending on whether the driver wants performance or a longer range. They can also be tailored to suit different types of circuit and driving styles, adjusting the power delivery between the two motors to place greater emphasis on front or rear-wheel drive.
Sources -
https://www.netcarshow.com/renault/2017-zoe_e-sport_concept/
https://www.renault.co.uk/vehicles/concept-cars/zzoe-concept.html
http://www.autoexpress.co.uk/renault/zoe/98799/renault-zoe-e-sport-concept-whizzes-into-geneva-2017


Types of Eyeglass Coatings -
  • Anti-reflection (AR) or anti-glare coating - a type of optical coating applied to the surface of lenses and other optical elements to reduce reflection. In typical imaging systems, this improves the efficiency since less light is lost. If glare becomes a problem, consider an anti-reflective coating applied to new eyeglasses. The anti-reflective coating reduces reflections, decrease halos around light, and create a nicer cosmetic appearance.
  • Scratch-resistant coating - protection from scratches
  • Ultraviolet coating - ultraviolet protection.
  • Hydrophobic coating - doesn't let water to stay on the glasses
  • Tinted lense/coating - Sometimes a light or dark hint of color on the eyeglass lens can be beneficial to aid in vision. For example, a yellow tint may increase contrast and a gray tint may not alter color perception with sunglasses. A light tint can also hide the signs of aging around the eyes.
  • Mirror coatings - If you are looking for a purely cosmetic lens that allows the eyes to be hidden from view, then this is the coating for you. Mirror coatings come in a variety of colors such as silver, gold, and blue.

Types of Eyeglass Lenses -
  • Polycarbonate lenses - These eyeglass lenses are impact-resistant and are a good choice for people who regularly participate in sports, work in an environment in which their eyeglasses may be easily scratched or broken, and for children who may easily drop and scratch their eyeglasses. Polycarbonate lenses also provide ultraviolet protection.
  • Trivex lenses - These lenses are made from a newer plastic with similar characteristics of polycarbonate lenses. They are lightweight, thin, and impact-resistant and may result in better vision correction than the polycarbonate lenses for some people (that is, in some prescription number glasses).
  • High index plastic lenses - Designed for people who require strong prescriptions, these eyeglass lenses are lighter and thinner than the standard, thick "coke bottle" lenses that may otherwise be needed.
  • Aspheric lenses - These eyeglass lenses are unlike typical lenses, which are spherical in shape. Aspheric lenses are made up of differing degrees of curvature over its surface, which allows the lens to be thinner and flatter than other lenses. This also creates an eyeglass lens with a much larger usable portion than the standard lens.
  • Photochromic lenses (Transition lenses) - Made from either glass or plastic, these eyeglasses change from clear to tinted when exposed to sunlight, darken on exposure to specific types of light of sufficient intensity, most commonly ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In the absence of activating a light, the lenses return to their clear state. This eliminates the need for prescription sunglasses. These eyeglass lenses may not darken in a car because the windshield could block the ultraviolet rays from the sun.
  • Polarized (Polarizing foil core) lenses - Light reflected from water or any flat surface can cause unwanted blinding glare. Polarized lenses reduce glare in all lighting conditions and are useful for sports and driving. These lenses may cause the liquid crystal displays (LCD's) on the dashboard of cars to appear invisible.
  • Drivewear glasses (for daytime driving only) - It is a combines photochromic and polarization technology. The DriveWear lens is exclusively a daytime lens designed for driving, though can benefit people in other activities such as fishing, sailing or any outdoor activities. It minimizes glare and excess visual light while maximizing useful light information reaching the eyes
  • Nighttime driving glasses (for nighttime driving only) - It is a combination of a clear (Category 0) lens with an anti-glare (= AR = anti reflective) coating and a slight yellow tint as it reduces blue light emitted from oncoming road vehicles.

Image Source - http://www.sunglassoptions.co.nz/page/432149700
Information source - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z74vxtpoBOw


Question: Ask yourself, why don't we have a smartphone with a battery life of 7 days?

Note:
This article is meant for normal users and not for power users (the flagshippers) who use their phone like a desktop and prefer maximum performance even if it means charging their phone every time they find a charging port.



Introduction:

I personally have a Moto Z Play that runs for 3 days straight on a single charge with a total screen on time (SOT) of 15  hours (5 hours SOT per day).
Original XDA thread (with proof)
Original Reddit thread (with criticisms)


It can be further understood that in a single day, my phone's screen and processing were active for 5 hours and the doze (sleep with sync) mode was active for (24-5)=19 hours. This doze time is 3.8 times the 5 hours of SOT per day.


This is attained on a 5.5 inch 1080p display with a battery of 3510 mah and a snapdragon 625 processor (14 nm manufacturing).

Software Changes/Tweaks (to get such an amazing battery life):



Further Technical Changes (required to attain a week long battery life):
  1. The display is downgraded to an ergonomic 4.7inch 720p display (has the same ppi as an Iphone).
  2. The battery capacity is increased to 5000mah.
  3. An increase of 20% in the overall hardware operating efficiency is applied:
    A.) As per regular technological advances in 2 years which has already been achieved in the latest series of Snapdragon hardware, and
    B.) As per the decrease in processing of screen elements due to the display bein down-scaled to 60% (720p) of its original resolution (1080p).
  4. No increase in overall software operating efficiency is assumed as any increase in efficiency gets used by the increase in processing load as software evolves to be heavier with time.

    Intermediate Calculations:
    1. The new screen on time will be:
      15*(1080/720)*(5000/3510)*1.2=~38.5 hours.
      This is equivalent to 5.5 hours of screen on time for all 7 days of the week!
    2. But for most *average* users, the average daily SOT is 4 hours.
    3. So we have an extra SOT of [38.5 hours - (4 hours*7 days)]=10.5 hours on our hands (remember this number it will come in handy later)
    4. Additionally, the doze/sleep mode time is increased to:
      19 hours*3*(5000/3510)*1.2=~97.5 hours.
    5. However, our desired doze/sleep mode time is 20 hours*7=140 hours
      Thus it can be seen that our doze/sleep mode time is short by (140 hours - 97.5 hours)=42.5 hours
    6. This shortcoming can be achieved by now using the extra 10.46 hours of SOT we have on our hands.
      Since we already know that 1 hour of SOT equals 3.8 hours of sleep/doze,
      10.5 hours of SOT =~40 hours.
    7. Thus the doze/sleep mode time is further increased to: 97.5 hours+40 hours= 137.5 hours (this is 2,5 hours short of the desired 140 hours).

    Final Results:
    1. 28 hours of screen on time = 4 hours*7 days
    2. 137.5 hours (2.5 hours short of the required 140 hours) of doze (sleep with sync) time
    3. 6.895 days of battery life (1.5% short of the required 7 days)

    Now, I believe, you can imagine only charging your phone once a week!


    Some things that still may be difficult to accept:
    1. 4 hours of SOT.
    2. 20% increase in total hardware efficiency.
    3. I only used Wi-Fi for internet and not an LTE connection.
    4. I didn't play any games or poorly coded apps (like Facebook's official app).
    5. Weight of phone - the weight of your phone will actually stay the same as we are ditching at least ~20% of the weight of the phone by making its screen smaller thus resulting in lesser size (thus weight) of components being used. This decrease in weight of the phone's body will be balanced by the increase in the weight of the battery by ~30%.

    Lastly..

    If you think that this phone would never actually get you a battery life of 7 days even though you are an *average* user because there are some things you can't make a compromise on, remember that those issues can be addressed by:

    1. Increasing the battery capacity even further or 
    2. Downgrading the Snapdragon processor from the 600 series to one from 400 series. 


    P.S.
    If you still think you can't get a battery life of 7 days, then you are a "power-user".



    Performance -
    Horsepower - 250hp (190kW)
    Top Speed - 225+kmph (140+mph)
    Acceleration - 0-97kmph (0-60mph) in <2.9 seconds
    Noise levels ~ 80 dB (SPL)

    Body -
    Body Work - Carbon fiber and Kevlar honeycomb (To save costs, the car is not made with the latest carbon-fiber materials used in Formula 1)
    Chassis - Carbon fiber & Aluminium with high strength elements (made by Spark-Dallara), 
    carbon fibre front and rear impact structures, Diolen anti-intrusion side panels, cockpit head protection and wheel tethers. 
    Total Car Weight (including driver) <900kg (1980lbs), (~250kg (550lbs) heavier than a Formula 1 car)

    Battery -
    Range - Varies highly with vehicle speed
    Battery Pack ~ 28 kWh Lithium Ion (maximum usable) (made by Williams Advanced Engineering)
    Peak Power - 200kW (270hp)
    Bus voltage - 1000V (Maximum allowed)
    Battery Weight - 200kg (333lbs)
    Battery Pack Weight - 330kg (730lbs)
    Normal Charging - generators used to re-charge the batteries are powered by glycerine, a by-product of bio-diesel production.

    Other Systems -
    Suspension - Pushrod-operated, unequal-length control arm Steel suspensions
    Tires - bespoke 18" treaded (provide optimum performance in both wet and dry conditions) (made by Michelin)
    Wheels - made by O.Z.
    Electronic Systems - by Mclaren
    System Integration - by Renault
    Aerodynamics - by AOTECH (CFD/wind tunnel specialist)

    Cost -
    Cost - $375,000 (€350,000) (including research)
    Warranty - No warranty, cars last for a varying number of races.

    Timeline -
    Release Year - 2012
    Production Year - 2013
    Availability Year - 2014

    For Detailed Technical Information, follow this link -



    Official "Basic Technological" Explanations by FIA Formula E Championship & "Scarbs"-


    Advanced Unofficial Explanations by Engineering Explained -


    Official "Steering Wheel Demonstration" &  Car Charge Graphic Explanation -


    References -
    http://www.fiaformulae.com/
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formula_E
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spark-Renault_SRT_01E
    http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2016/july/bold-new-look-for-formula-e-car/
    http://www.sparkracingtechnology.com/en/projects/formulae/spark-renault-srt01e/introduction
    http://www.sparkracingtechnology.com/en/projects/formulae/spark-renault-srt01e/datasheet
    http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2014/september/the-formula-e-battery-a-qa-with-craig-wilson.aspx
    https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/23/sports/autoracing/what-makes-formula-e-cars-tick.html

    Ankit

    {picture#https://media.licdn.com/mpr/mpr/shrinknp_400_400/AAEAAQAAAAAAAAexAAAAJDU5ZTczNThhLTY5OGUtNDA0Ni05YjI3LTZkZDIzMTRhZTdiMA.jpg} My primary objective in life is to Actualize my potential in Research, Design & Development by establishing a practical Equilibrium between Performance & Economy for products & services. I’m driven by the moral imperative to make life more livable for all beings by innovating new technologies and combining them with streamlined pre-existing technologies. You can support me on Patreon. get updates via Facebook, connect with me on Linkedin, and if interested, see my Resume. {facebook#https://www.facebook.com/AkAnkit5} {patreon#https://www.patreon.com/akankit} {twitter#https://www.twitter.com/Ak_Ankit} {youtube#https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCAcChaalQOKZ5A1kC-2B38w}
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